Transformers are one of the very important parts of electrical power system that is used for generation, transmission as well as distribution of electrical powers.
Often you may need to repair transformer and it is essential to know few basic information about transformers. There are many different varieties of transformers and most commonly used transformers are as follows:
- Step up/down transformers
Step-up transformers are where low voltage with high current transformers at the primary side is stepped up to high voltage and low current.
In case of step-down transformers, higher primary voltage at lower currents is stepped down to lower voltage with higher currents.
- Power transformers
All power transformers are usually used for transmission of higher voltages to power network. Their ratings can be 32 KV to 400 KV are often rated much above 200 MVA.
You will find them installed at generating stations or transmission substations and usually designed for offering efficiency of 100%.
- Distribution transformers
Usually distribution type of transformers will have lower ratings starting from 230 Volts to 11 KV and rated lower than 200 MVA.
They are generally used in distribution network for providing voltage transformation in power system by lowering down level of voltage so that it can be distributed to consumer end.
- Instrument transformers
Such transformers are also known as isolation transformer which is used for both transforming the voltage as well as current levels so that primary side can be suitably isolated from secondary side.
- Potential transformers
They are also known as voltage transformer where primary winding will be connected to high voltage which is measured by suitable meters and also the proper measurements of secondary voltages are also made by using certain measuring instruments.
Basically, the main function of such transformer is stepping down of voltage level to certain safer limit or value.
- Single-phase transformers
Here the transformer will transfer AC power from certain circuit to some other circuit. There can be 2 kinds of windings in these transformers.
At the winding where AC supply is provided will be termed as a primary winding while the winding where load is connected is termed as secondary winding.
- 3-phase transformers
In these transformers, there will be three primaries and also corresponding three secondaries. As a matter of fact, it is like 3 single phase transformers in one unit.
Mostly in power generation and distribution systems, these transformers are utilized.